Topic outline

  • About the teacher


    I am Mukimov Odina the assistant of Philology  faculty,

    English department in Kulod University after the name Abuabdullohi Rudaki.

    I am teaching diffrent subjects at this faculty as lexicjlody, practical cours of English and phonetic.

                  My reception day:

    from 2 o'clock up to 5 o'clock on Mon.

    from 8 o'clock up to 12 o'clock on Tue.

    from 2 o'clock up to 5 o'clock on Wed.

    from 2 o'clock up to 5 o'clock on Thur.

    Friday -.

    from 2 o'clock up to 5 o'clock on Sat.



  • Пешгуфтор


        The term «lexicology» is of Greek origin / from «lexis» - «word» and «logos» - «science»/ . Lexicology is the part of linguistics which deals with the vocabulary and characteristic features of words and word-groups.

    The term «vocabulary» is used to denote the system of words and word-groups that the language possesses.

    The term «word» denotes the main lexical unit of a language resulting from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest unit of a language which can stand alone as a complete utterance.

    The term «word-group» denotes a group of words which exists in the language as a ready-made unit, has the unity of meaning, the unity of syntactical function, e.g. the word-group «as loose as a goose» means «clumsy» and is used in a sentence as a predicative / He is as loose as a goose/.

    Lexicology can study the development of the vocabulary, the origin of words and word-groups, their semantic relations and the development of their sound form and meaning. In this case it is called historical lexicology.

    Another branch of lexicology is called descriptive and studies the vocabulary at a definite stage of its development.



       The main unit of the lexical system of a language resulting  from the association of a group of sounds with a meaning is a word. This unit is used in grammatical functions characteristic of it. It is the smallest language unit which can stand alone as  a complete utterance.

      A word, however, can be divided into smaller sense units - morphemes. The morpheme is the smallest meaningful language unit. The morpheme consists of a class of variants, allomorphs, which are either phonologically or morphologically  conditioned, e.g. please, pleasant, pleasure.

      Morphemes are divided into two large groups: lexical morphemes and grammatical (functional) morphemes. Both lexical and grammatical morphemes can be free and bound. Free lexical morphemes are roots of words which express the lexical meaning of the word, they coincide with the stem of simple words. Free grammatical morphemes are function words: articles, conjunctions and prepositions ( the, with, and).

      Bound lexical morphemes are affixes: prefixes (dis-), suffixes (-ish) and also blocked (unique) root morphemes (e.g. Fri-day, cran-berry). Bound grammatical morphemes are inflexions (endings), e.g. -s for the Plural of nouns, -ed for the Past Indefinite of regular verbs, -ing  for the Present Participle, -er  for the Comparative degree of adjectives.



        The splinter «napper»  was formed by clipping the beginning of the word  «kidnapper»  and is used to denote different types of crimesters, such as : «busnapper»,  «babynapper», «dognapper»  etc. From such nouns the corresponding verbs are formed by means of backformation, e.g. «to busnap», «to babynap», «to dognap».

        The splinter  «omat»  was formed by clipping the beginning of the word  «automat»  (a cafe in which meals are provided in slot-machines). The meaning «self-service» is used in such words as «laundromat»,  «cashomat» etc.
        Another splinter «eteria» with the meaning «self-service» was formed by clipping the beginning of the word «cafeteria». By means of the splinter

      • Suffixation. Prefixation


        The main function of suffixes in Modern English is  to form one part of speech from another, the secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. ( e.g. «educate» is a verb, «educatee» is a noun,  and  « music» is a noun, «musicdom» is also a noun) .


        Prefixation is the formation of words by means of adding a prefix to the stem. In English it is characteristic for forming verbs. Prefixes are more independent than suffixes. Prefixes can be classified according to the nature of words in which they are used : prefixes used in notional words and prefixes used in functional words. Prefixes used in notional words are proper prefixes which are bound morphemes, e.g.  un- (unhappy). Prefixes used in functional words are semi-bound morphemes because they are met in the language as words, e.g. over- (overhead) ( cf  over the table ).


          Compound words in English can be formed not only by means of composition but also by means of :

          a) reduplication, e.g. too-too, and also by means of reduplicatin combined with sound interchange , e.g. rope-ripe,

          b) conversion from word-groups, e.g. to micky-mouse, can-do, makeup etc,

          c) back formation from compound nouns or word-groups, e.g. to bloodtransfuse, to fingerprint etc ,

          d) analogy, e.g. lie-in ( on the analogy with sit-in) and also phone-in,  brawn-drain (on the analogy with brain-drain)  etc.

          • ABBREVIATION


            In the process of communication words and word-groups can be shortened. The causes of shortening can be linguistic and extra-linguistic. By extra-linguistic causes changes in the life of people are meant. In Modern English many new abbreviations, acronyms , initials, blends are formed because the tempo of life is increasing and it becomes necessary to give more and more information in the shortest possible time.

            There are also linguistic causes of abbreviating words and word-groups, such as the demand of rhythm, which is satisfied in English by monosyllabic words. When borrowings from other languages are assimilated in English they are shortened. Here we have modification of form on the basis of analogy, e.g. the Latin borrowing «fanaticus» is shortened to «fan» on the analogy with native words:  man, pan, tan etc.



              In cases of conversion the problem of criteria of semantic derivation arises : which of the converted pair is primary and which is converted from it. The problem was first analized by prof. A.I. Smirnitsky. Later on P.A. Soboleva developed his idea and worked out the following criteria:

              1. If the lexical meaning of the root morpheme and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide the word is primary, e.g. in cases pen - to pen, father - to father the nouns are names of an object and a living being. Therefore in the nouns «pen» and «father» the lexical meaning of the root  and the lexico-grammatical meaning of the stem coincide. The verbs «to pen» and « to father» denote an action, a process therefore the lexico-grammatical meanings of the stems do not coincide with the lexical meanings of the roots.  The verbs  have a complex  semantic structure and they were converted from nouns.

            • SPECIALIZATION


               It is a gradual process when a word passes from a general sphere to some special sphere of communication, e.g. «case» has a general meaning  «circumstances in which a person or a thing is». It is specialized in its meaning when used in law (a law suit), in grammar (a form in the paradigm of a noun), in medicine (a patient, an illness). The difference between these meanings is revealed in the context.

              • GENERALIZATION


                 It is a process contrary to specializaton, in such cases the meaning of a word becomes more general in the course of time.

                The transfer from a concrete meaning to an abstract one is most frequent, e.g. «ready» (a derivative from the verb «ridan» - «ride») meant «prepared for a ride», now its meaning is «prepared for anything». «Journey» was borrowed from French with the meaning «one day trip», now it means «a trip of any duration».


                • METAPHOR. METONYMY


                   It is a transfer of the meaning on the basis of comparison. Herman Paul points out that metaphor can be based on different types of similarity:

                  a) similarity of shape, e.g. head (of a cabbage), bottleneck, teeth (of a saw, a comb);


                  It is a transfer of the meaning on the basis of contiguity. There are different types of metonymy:

                  a) the material of which an object is made may become the name of the object , e.g.  a glass, boards, iron etc;

                  • PHRASEOLOGY


                     The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a  rule, into different semantic groups.



                      A.V. Koonin  classified phraseological units according to the way they are formed. He pointed out primary and secondary ways of forming phraseological units.
                      Primary ways of forming phraseological units are those when a unit is formed on the basis of a free word-group :

                      a) Most productive in Modern English is the formation of phraseological units by means of transferring the meaning of terminological word-groups, e.g. in cosmic technique we can point out the following phrases: «launching pad» in its terminological meaning is «стартовая площадка» , in its transferred meaning - «отправной пункт», «to link up» - «cтыковаться, стыковать космические корабли» in its tranformed meaning it means -«знакомиться»;

                      b) a large group of phraseological units was formed from free word groups by transforming their meaning, e.g. «granny farm» - «пансионат для престарелых», «Troyan horse» -  «компьюторная программа, преднамеренно составленная для повреждения компьютера»;



                        Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky worked out structural classification of phraseological units, comparing them with words. He points out one-top units which he compares with derived words because derived words have only one root morpheme. He points out two-top units which he compares with compound words because in compound words we usually have two root morphemes.



                          Phraseological units can be clasified as parts of speech. This classification was suggested by I.V. Arnold. Here we have the following groups:

                          a) noun phraseologisms denoting an object, a person, a living being, e.g. bullet train, latchkey child,  redbrick university, Green Berets,

                          b) verb phraseologisms denoting an action, a state, a feeling, e.g. to break the log-jam, to get on somebody’s coattails, to be on the beam, to nose out, to make headlines,

                          c) adjective phraseologisms denoting a quality, e.g. loose as a goose, dull as lead ,

                          d) adverb phraseological units, such as : with a bump,  in the soup, like a dream , like a dog with two tails,

                          e) preposition phraseological units, e.g. in the course of, on the stroke of ,

                          f) interjection phraseological units, e.g. «Catch me!», «Well, I never!» etc.


                          • BORROWINGS


                            Borrowing words from other languages is characteristic of English throughout its history More than two thirds of the English vocabulary are borrowings. Mostly they are words of Romanic origin (Latin, French, Italian, Spanish). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic structure, by their morphological structure and also by their grammatical forms. It is also characterisitic of borrowings to be non-motivated semantically.

                            English history is very rich in different types of contacts with other countries, that is why it is very rich in borrowings. The Roman invasion, the adoption of Cristianity, Scandinavian and Norman conquests of the British Isles, the development of British colonialism and trade and cultural relations served to increase immensely the English vocabulary. The majority of these borrowings are fully assimilated in English in their pronunciation, grammar, spelling and can be hardly distinguished from native words.

                            • ETYMOLOGICAL DOUBLETS

                              ETYMOLOGICAL DOUBLETS

                              Sometimes a word is borrowed twice from the same language.  As the result, we have two different words with different spellings and meanings but historically they come back to one and the same word. Such words are called etymological doublets. In English there are some groups of them:
                              Latino-French doublets.

                              Latin        English from Latin                 English from French

                              uncia                        inch                                        ounce
                              moneta                    mint                                        money
                              camera                     camera                                   chamber

                              Franco-French doublets doublets  borrowed from different dialects of French.

                                                Norman                     Paris

                              canal            channel
                               captain         chieftain
                                                        catch            chaise                            
                                Scandinavian-English doublets

                                                  Scandinavian               English

                                       skirt                             shirt
                                                   scabby                         shabby